Myelofibrosis (Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia or AMM)

Myelofibrosis—also called agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM), myelosclerosis, chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis, idiopathic myelofibrosis, myelosclerosis with myeloid metaplasia, and primary myelofibrosis—is a form of cancer that arises in the bone marrow.


What Causes Myelofibrosis?

Myelofibrosis occurs when the bone marrow produces too much collagen or fibrous tissue. As a result, fewer blood-producing cells are created, and they can be destroyed more rapidly, which leads to anemia (low levels of red blood cells), low platelet count, and an increased risk of developing infections. This condition can occur by itself or in combination with other myeloproliferative disorders, such as essential thrombocytosis or polycythemia vera.


What Are the Symptoms of Myelofibrosis?

Myelofibrosis symptoms are somewhat similar to chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), but patients lack the genetic defect known to cause CML.

Patients tend to be over 60 years old, and experience an enlarged spleen and anemia as the bone marrow stops making blood and other organs like the liver and spleen attempt to take over blood production.

Other symptoms may include:

•  Fatigue

•  A general feeling of discomfort

•  Difficulty breathing

•  Weight loss

•  Fever and night sweats

•  Anemia

•  Abnormal bleeding

Patients with myelofibrosis have an increased risk of bleeding. They are more susceptible to developing infections compared to healthy individuals. In addition, patients have an increased risk of developing an enlarged spleen. In extreme cases, the spleen may rupture.


Treatment of Myelofibrosis

• Bone marrow transplantation

Blood and marrow transplantation is one of the specialty therapies available for the treatment of myelofibrosis. The BMT Program at Stanford has been very successful with a history of limited morbidity rates and acute mortality that is well below most published reports.
Learn more about bone marrow transplantation.

(The content above extract from

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